Friday, August 22, 2014

Jews Living in Judea, Samaria and Other Places-Timeline- from 70 CE to Today

Nadene Goldfoot                                          
                                          Judaean Desert

  1010 BCE-970 BCE  King David  of Israel 

From 163 B.C.E. there is evidence of Jews in Rome.  They were probably slaves, Traders?   
30 BCE  Herod the Great by Julius Ceasar, crucifictions; 25,000 Jews till 70 CE.  
 5 BCE, in Bethlehem, Judea, Roman soldiers stationed in Jerusalem from Greece, Gaul and Syria were following Roman appointed King  Herod's orders to kill all male children under age 2.                                

 1 CE 1st century Abba Sikra zealot in Jerusalem during the revolt against the Romans, alias Ben Batiah.  nephew of R Johanan ben Zakkai, helped to escape from Jerusalem.    In the year 6 CE. there were Jews at Vienne, France and Gallia Celtica which would be today's " SwitzerlandFranceLuxembourg and the west bank of the Rhine in Germany.".   "The first settlements of Jews in Europe are obscure;  in the year 39 at Lugdunum (i.e. Lyon) which is Lyon, France started in the year 43.  
29 CE Jesus was crucified during Pontius Pilate's rule; starting the narration of Christianity., About 25,000 Jews crucified by Herod till 70 CE.     
61-63 CE  Jeshua Ben Damna, high priest, appointed by Herod Agrippa II, displaced by Gamla and ensued a struggle, toward end of the siege of Jerusalem of 70 CE fled to the Romans with other members of the priestly families.
  Arch of General Titus, soon to become emperor,  Menorah Relief; Romans taking away Menorah, other things from Jerusalem, taking 97,000 slaves from Judaea in 70 CE

66-73 Judaea which was a Roman Province had the first Jewish-Roman War.  The Sadducees and Pharisees fought against the Roman Empire.  The Jewish commanders and leaders were Ananus ben Ananus, Eliezar ben Hanania, Josef ben Matityahu, and Simon Bar Giora.  In the early stage the Roman guard had 3,000 against 10,000 under Ananus and 15,000 under Bar Giora.  The Romans Syrian Legion had 30,000 in Beth Horon while there were only 500 Adiabene warriors fighting for Judaea.  Eleazar had 20,000 Idumeans fighting.  6,000 were under John and 2,400 were under Eleazar, who were the radical factions.  Then the Romans brought out 5 Legions of 60,000 to 80,000 men at the Jerusalem siege.  Judaea had about 200 Sicarii fighting.  20,000 Roman soldiers were killed while 25,000 to 30,000 Judean rebels were killed and 10,000 radical factions.  In the end, 1.1 million Jewish militant and civilians were killed and 97,000 were enslaved and most likely taken to Rome. Masada in 73, Herod's Palace, where 960 Jewish Sicarii (Jewish zealots armed with small daggers) had been living in refuge, committed suicide after 3 months of being sieged by Roman Legion led by Lucius Flavius Silva with 15,000 troops.  1 woman, 5 children escaped.  Story told by Josephus.

From 37  to 100 CE, the land of Judah had been occupied by the Romans as told by Flavius Josephus, a Jewish Historian who was captured by the Romans.  He was hired to write the history of their occupation in the Jewish land.  Individual Jews lived in France before 70 CE.   "The Romans destroyed the Jews' 2nd Temple in Jerusalem and took over the city in 70 CE.  They burned Jerusalem down and took away Jews as slaves for Rome while many others fled. Many  people of Judah had scattered to the 4 winds but  a number were able to remain in Judah.  Organized Jewish communities existed in France in the period of the Roman Empire.  Their position deteriorated with the growth of Christianity and its powers.

"As the siege of the capital in the year 70 began on the day of the Passover sacrifice (V, 13, 7, VI, 9, 3), to which naturally many thousands of pilgrims had arrived from all parts of the country, the number of the besieged was very great. Among them were many from beyond the Euphrates and other foreign lands (Dio Cassius, 66. 4). 1,100,000 men perished during the siege, 97,000 were taken captive (VI, 9, 3); of these only 40,000 were preserved (8, 2), all citizens of Jerusalem (8, 2), the rest were sold for slaves, some sent into the mines in Egypt (9, 2), others distributed among the provinces for the circuses."and where did the 40,000 settle after having been allowed to go where they liked ?

Josephus mentions one of the four sons of the high priest Matthias , the high priests Joseph and Jesus, and three sons of the high priest Ishmael, four sons of a Matthias, and many other nobles who succeeded in escaping from the besieged capital to the Romans (VI, 2, 2). 

Many of the eminent citizens ran away to Titus (V, 13, 7) and told him the number of the poor who had died. Titus allowed these to retire to Gofna; there, he said, they should stay till his hands would be free from the war, when he would restore to them their property. Among the numerous deserters was the priest Jesus, son of Thebuthi , who surrendered many costly vessels of the Temple, as well as the curtains and the robe of the high priest. The treasurer of the Temple also fell into the hands of the Romans and was exceptionally pardoned in exchange for valuable stuff, priestly garments, and costly spices.

 Already, after Cestius's defeat in the year 66, many of the nobles had left Jerusalem as if it were a sinking ship; for instance, the two brothers Costobarus and Saul, along with Phillip, son of Jakimos, who had been a general of Agrippa's troops (II, 20, 1). 

After the entry of the Romans into Jerusalem,  Titus liberated all those Jews who had been thrown into prison by zealots (VI, 9.1); they also most probably belonged to the wealthy section of the population.   It may be assumed as almost certain that the members of both groups, of the priestly and of the lay nobility of Jerusalem, at the conclusion of the war received their landed property, and assisted the poor country of Judaea in recovering from its terrible downfall. 

Where they settled is nowhere indicated by Josephus; he lived in Rome and seemed to evince no interest in the state of his native country after the destruction. It is possible that, though owning land in Judaea, some of the nobles settled outside Judaea, as Josephus, who, in exchange for his fields near Jerusalem, received from Titus others in the plain, and was rewarded by Vespasian by additional property in Judaea 

115 CE Jews were expulsed from Cyprus
132-135 CE Jewish General Bar Kochba's Revolt  when Jerusalem was liberated for a time, Roman emperor Hadrian rebuilt Jerusalem as a Roman colony, Aelia Capitolina and forbid Jews to approach it under pain of death.  Now Judah was renamed Palaestina by the Romans.There were about 200 towns and villages where Jews live in Beersheba-Arad Valley and 204 towns and villages in the Galilee.

" From this time on, in spite of unimportant movements under Antoninus, Marcus Aurelius, and Severus, the Jews, reduced in numbers, destitute, and crushed, lost their preponderance in their own homeland. Jerusalem had become, under the name "Ælia Capitolina", a Roman colony and entirely pagan city. Jews were forbidden entrance on pain of death, except for the day of Tisha B'Av, see also Anti-Judaism in the Roman Empire. Yet despite the decree, there has been an almost continual Jewish presence in Jerusalem for 3,300 years, and 43 Jewish communities in Israel remained in the 6th century: 12 on the coast, in the Negev desert, and east of the Jordan, and 31 villages in Galilee (in the northern Land of Israel) and in the Jordan Valley. Yavne on the coastal plain, associated with Yochanan ben Zakai, was an important center of Rabbinic Judaism" :"After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, Rabban Yochanan Ben Zakkai moved the Sanhedrin to Yavne. It was 12.32 miles south of Jaffa.  Some scholars believe the so-called Council of Yavne met there. The Sanhedrin left Yavne for Usha in 80 CE and returned in 116 CE.

"After the Bar Kochba Revolt of 132-135 AD the Romans engaged in mass executions and enslavement, and destroyed large numbers of Judaean towns, forbidding Jews from settling in Jerusalem or its environs (Dio Cassius, Roman History 69.12-14); there was no further Jewish government or overarching legal system thereafter in Judaea; this effectively turned the expatriate Jews of the Diaspora into a permanently exiled people with no national homeland. Restrictions (taxation, discrimination, social exclusions) further alienated and marginalized remaining Jews in the Negev and Galilee and favored the settlement of culturally pagan Syro-Phoenicians and others.[citation needed] It was at this time that Judaea became normatively known as Syria Palestina. The name reflected both the large scale killing[citation needed] of Jews during the suppression of the 2nd Jewish revolt, and a Roman policy, first pagan, then Christian, to alienate Jews from the Land of Israel and Judaea, ensuring that no Jewish temple, Jerusalem or state ever rose again."

139  Jews expelled from Rome.  
Jews were living in Germany from 100 to 1299 CE.

From 198 to 224 CE, the Parthian Empire collapsed which was largely populated by Israelites.  The empire, located on the Silk Road trade route between the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean Basin and the Han Empire of China, became a center of trade and commerce.
                                Central Asia 200-800 CE-Epicenter of Great Migration

From 200 to 800 CE was a great migration period with Central Asia as the epicenter where Jews were leaving and going into Europe.   Jews were found settling in Germany in the early 5th century which would be as early as the 400s CE and continuing to arrive there through the 10th century of 900s.  On 640, 721 and 873 Jews in the Byzantine Empire were forcibly converted to Christianity.  This was the Greek speaking Roman Empire with headquarters in Constantinople alias Istanbul.  It was later a part of the Ottoman Empire.

A decree of the emperors Theodosius II and Valentinian III, addressed to Amatius, prefect of Gaul (Gaul (LatinGallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age and Roman era, encompassing present day France,LuxembourgBelgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine (9 July 425), prohibited Jews and pagans from practicing law and from holding public offices ("militandi"), in order that Christians should not be in subjection to them, and thus be incited to change their faith. From the year 465 the Church took official cognizance of the Jews. Jews were found in Marseille in the sixth century
335-427 Ashi, editor of the Babylonian Talmud, headed the academy of Sura which he re-established at Mata Mehasya.  which is in "Sasanian Babylonia."

570-632 Mohammad, started Islam, Jewish tribes were living in Medina, Arabia, converted many Jews.  

628 Jerusalem  Byzantine ruled Jerusalem with emperor Heraclius.
630 -632 Byzantine emperor Heraclius decreed that all Jews in empire must convert to Christianity.
638 Jerusalem Caliph Omar set up in Temple esplanade place of Muslim prayer

From 652 to 1016 CE the kingdom of Khazaria in the Caucasus Mountains thrived with King Bulan converting himself and his family of about 2,000 to Judaism after listening to the speeches of a Jew, a Christian and a Muslim tell him about their belief.  He chose the Jewish religion to replace his pagan one.  Khazaria was a refuge for many Jews who left more oppressive lands towards Jews.  So it was a mixture of religions sitting on the Silk Road and involved in much trading.
691 Dome of the Rock built by Muslim Umayyad caliph Abd-elMalik, now Jews allowed to return to Jerusalem.  
700 Jews were living in Lithuania. "Lithuanian Jews or Litvaks are Jews with roots in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: (present-day LithuaniaBelarus,UkraineLatvia and the northeastern Suwałki region of Poland). 
722-723 Escaped from Byzantine Empire from Emperor Leo III, who forced Jews to adopt Christianity

742 to 814 CE Jews lived under Charlemagne who was crowned king of the Franks and of Italy in 768.    The community prospered under Charlemagne.  Charlemagne united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire. His rule spurred the Carolingian Renaissance, a period of cultural and intellectual activity within the Catholic Church.  Aaron (Abu Aharon) Ben Samuel, Mystic and wonder-worker, left Baghdad about 870 and wandered through Italy, teaching Kabbalistic lore.  Pupil was Moses ben Kalonymos of Lucca, Italy who carried his teachings to Germany, regarded as father of Kabbalistic study in Europe.  
800s Lyons, France, Jewish settlement to Roman times, Agobard and Amulo, bishops of Lyons claimed that the Jews were excessively privileged by the king and that the market-day had been changed from Saturday to suit their convenience.    Both the French and German monarchies considered their kingdoms to be descendants of Charlemagne's empire.  From the 700s under the protection of Charlemagne and his house, Jewish merchants began to settle in France for purposes of trade, importing foreign luxuries and establishing new communities up the Rhone Valley and into Champagne.  By the 9th century,  southern France was the main center of the activity of the international traders, the Radanites.  
860  Forced conversion of Byzantine Jews by Emperor Basil I -end of century Jews couldn't hold public office, intermarry with Christians or own Christian slaves, forced to read bible in Greek and not in Hebrew, not to convert Christians on pain of death and property would be taken, couldn't testify for Christians during legal proceedings or build new synagogues-forcing the inferior status of byzantine Jews in comparison to Orthodox Christians. 
932  Byzantine emperor Romanus I Lecapenus persecuted Jews, tried to convert them to Christianity, so murdered hundreds of Jews and destroyed many synagogues.  Jews migrated to Khazaria from Muslim and Byzantine lands, Joseph , king of Khazars welcomed them to settle in Khazaria.  

1000s  Jew Street in Aachen, Germany. 
 Fatimids of 11th century built a 2nd mosque, El-Aksa, on Temple site.  
1034: First synagogue erected in Worms, Germany (oldest city in Germany)  established by the Celts, "Worms also played prominently into the Protestant Reformation in the early sixteenth century, the site of Martin Luther's stand before the 1521 Diet of Worms, and also the birthplace of the first Bibles of the Reformation, German and English."
1040:  Abiathar Ben Elijah Ha-Cohen, died in 1109, last Gaon in Eretz Yisrael.  Exiled after violent quarrel with Egyptian exilarch David ben Daniel.  work found in Cairo genizah, left at the time of the 1st Crusade, transferring the seat of the Gaonate to Syria.  

This was the seat of Rashi (1040-1105) and the Tosaphists.  Jews were being excluded from trade and handicrafts which drove them more and more into money-lending which in Northern France became their economic stand-by.  Rashi studied in the Rhineland which was Germany.  He died in Troyes, Champagne, France.  He earned his livelihood with his vineyard.  He was author of well known concise commentary on the bible.  He had 3 daughters; Jochaved, Miriam,  and Rachel.  
1060 Itzhak Tzarfarti died in Worms, Germany 1096 to 1254 CE  started the first of 7 Crusades.  Jews suffered during the Crusades in Eretz Yisrael and in Europe as well. 800 Jews murdered by crusaders and local mob.  
1099 Godfrey of Bouillon stormed Jerusalem as Crusader and it became the capital of the Latin Kingdom.   Jewish community in Jerusalem massacred by the Crusaders.  Jews and Muslims fought together against Crusaders.
1110-1165  Maimon Ben Joseph, scholar, father of Maimonides, of Cordova, Spain, author of an Arabic commentary on the Bible, left Spain in 1148 because of persecution, went to Fez, Egypt and wrote a book upholding the faith of those Jews who were forced to convert to Islam.  Settled in Egypt.  
1145: Abraham Ibn Ezra lived in Mantua, Italy, formerly capital of a duchy.  May have only had a few families then.  
1146- Jews of Spain forcibly converted to Christianity.  Jews were massacred in European towns by marauding Crusaders.     In this 11th-12th century era, the Jewish communities of Northern France were the most densely settled in Europe--if not in the world.  The Talmud was the main branch of study.  
1160 -1238  Eleazar ben Judah of Worms, (Eleazar Ben Judah Ben Kalonymos), alias Rabbi of Worms and Eleazar Rokea, born in Mainz, Franconia, Germany, died in Worms, Germany, Rabbi, mystic, Talmudist, codifier, wrote "book of the Pious", part of eminent Kalonymos family which gave medieval Germany many spiritual leaders and mystics, Kabbalist. 
1161 Jews in Granada, Spain, narrative of being Jews from tribes of Judah and Benjamin in Judaea.
1175 Rashi Synagogue in Worms, Germany built
1185 Aaron of Lincoln died, was an English financier, extended business to 25 English counties, many of nobility, property was confiscated by the Crown, took his money that was owed to him.  
1187 Ayyubid sultan Saladin retook Jerusalem for Islam, remaining in Muslim hands except for a  few years in 13th century.  
1200-1300  Aaron Ben Jacob Ha-Cohen, French talmudist, expulsed from France in 1306 with other Jews, went to Majorca, finished Jewish laws list there.  
Aaron Ben Joseph Ha-Levi, Spanish talmudic authority, studied under Nahmanides in Barcelona, Spain, famous teacher.  
1290: Expulsion of Jews from England.
1306 Expulsion of the Jews from France.
1300s to 1400s Mameluke Period, new building were erected, water supply improved.  
1349-60 Jews expelled from Hungary
1346 to 1353 Jew were accused of well poisoning during the Black Death period  which led to mass slaughter of German Jews and they fled in large numbers then to Poland.  
1355: 12,000 Jews massacred by the mob in Toledo, Spain.  
1391: Jews of Spain again forcibly converted to Christianity. 
1420 Jewish community destroyed in Toulouse, France
1421: Jews expelled from Austria
1492: Spanish Inquisition:  Expulsion of 180,000 Jews from Spain, 50,000 converted to                          Christianity who remain in Spain.  Pious immigrants from many lands returned to an almost extinct Jewish population in Judea.  , numbers were artificially restricted by the government.  
1495: Jews expelled from Lithuania
1497: Jews expelled from Sicily and Sardinia and Portugal
1502: All Jews  of Rhodes forcibly converted, expelled or taken into slavery
1510 -1573  Solomon Ben Jehiel Luria, alias Maharshal, rabbi and codifier in Lithuania and Poland, finally in Lublin;  1512 Rabbi Jehuda Loew "Maharil of Prague, Worms, Germany
1534-1572 Isaac Ben Solomon Luria, alias "Ashkenazi,"   Judean kabbalist, born in Jerusalem, educated in Egypt, lived in Safed from 1570 , lived ascetic life, saintly character, identified ancient graves in Galilee, teacher
1541:  Jews expelled from the Kingdom of Naples.
1555  Aboab, family of Spanish origin, scholar and writer, born of Marrano parents, emigrated                 to Italy, reverted back to Judaism.
1604-1657 Manasseh ben Israel, Dutch rabbi, born of Marrano parentage as Manoel Dias Soeiro, went to Amsterdam as child, was child prodigy, 18 years old became rabbi.  
1625  Jewish population in Judea brutally despoiled by the local pasha Muhammad ibn Farukh.
1630 -1703  Samuel Oppenheimer/Oppenheim, philanthropist and Court Jew, the first to settle in Vienna, Austria after the 1670 expulsion, was King Leopold the First's  agent and financier; helping to finance his wars with Turks and War of the Spanish succession; in 1697 was accused of conspiring to murder his rival and great friend, Samson Wertheimer and imprisoned until vindicated.  Liberally supported poor, Jewish scholars, and Judah Hasid's movement to settle in Palestine.   Jewish Ghetto in 1630.  
1635-1683   Abraham Abele of Gombin, Polish talmudist and rabbi of Kalish.                              
1645 Rabbi  David Ashkenazy died, who was the Rabbi in Lemberg, Poland.  Ancestor of the Gaon of Vilna.    1648-56:  100,000 Jews murdered in the Chmielnicki massacres in Poland

                    Rabbi Samson Wertheimer of which my family shares a few genes, or his brother, Moses.

1658- 1724   Rabbi Samson Wertheimer lived and died  in Vienna, Austria, but was born in Worms, Germany, King Leopold 's finance-Minister, entrusted with the financial secrets of the country, supplied much of the war material for the army with Spain.  Fought against those who told malicious lies about the Jewish people.   
c1660-c1746 Rabbi Yehiel Heilprin in Minsk, Russia.  Talmud scholar, Kabbalah, chief Rabbi of Minsk.  
1664-1736  David Oppenheim/Oppenheimer, Rabbi and bibliophiole, nephew of Samuel Oppenheimer, born in Worms, Germany, Rabbi in Nikolsburg and from 1702 in Prague, had library of books, kept them in Hanover because of censorship in Prague.  
1685: Hirsch Rothschild zur hinteren Pfanne died in Germany.  
1698  Joseph Ben Issachar Susskind Oppenheimer; endeavored to consolidate the duchy's finances and free its ruler from dependence on grants from the estates which aroused much opposition and after the duke died in 1737, he was accused of embezzling state finances hanged in Stuttgart for having sexual relations with Christian women, refused baptism; in novel Jew Suss by Lion Feuchtwanger.  
1707 -1747, Italian Jewish Kabbalist and poet born and educated in  Padua, Italy thought of himself as forerunner of Messiah,  dabbled in the esoteric, mystical austerities. 
                                                             Gaon of Vilna, Lithuania 

1720 -1797   Rabbi Eliyahu, Gaon of Vilna
1727, 1747:  Jews expelled from Russia, 
1730   Iones "Jonah" Goldfus, Telsiai, Kaunas, Lithuania
1754-1800:  Solomon Maimon, philosopher, son of Lithuanian village inn-keeper, child prodigy, married at 14, father at 15, taught himself German, age 25 left for Germany, became a 
wandering begger.  went to Berlin, wrote, philosopher
1758  Rabbi Shlomo-Zalman  of Vilna died.  His wife was Treina and they were the parents of the Gaon of Vilna, Lithuania.  
1764  By 1764 there were about 750,000 Jews in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The worldwide Jewish population (comprising the Middle East and the rest of Europe) was estimated at 1.2 million.
1780:  Jewish community organized in Manchester, England.  
1800s  Samauel David Luzzatto, Italian scholar, professor at Padua Rabbinical College, Hebrew literature scholar.  Europeans returned brought about population revival going from 3,000 Jews in 1838 to  50,000 Jews in 1910.  Abraham Ben Alexander Katz of Kalisk, died 1810, Hasidic rabbi, studied under Elijah of Vilna , later joined Hasidic movement.  
1838:  Entire Jewish community in Meshed, Persia, forcibly converted to Islam
1840  Damascus, Syria Blood Libel of Jews 
1850: Madison, Wisconsin, USA had 17 Jewish families from Central europe living there.  They founded Congregation Shaare Shomayim in 1959.  
1855  New quarters built outside the Old City wall by Sir Moses Montefiore.
1856 Reform synagogue in Manchester, England built.  
1882-1890:  750,000 Jews living in Russia forced to re-settle in the Pale of Settlement.                                        Jerusalem was connected with Jaffa by a railway line; Aaron Aaronson, Romanian taken to Palestine , founder of Zikhron Yaakov, studied agronomy in France, worked in Metullah , was leader, advisor to Turkish commander Jemal Pasha, oranized underground intelligence service NILI.   
1891:  Jews expelled from Moscow and St. Petersburg, Russia
1898  Herzl greeted German emperor William II who visited Jerusalem.

1914-1917  World War I  population fell to 50,000, occupied by General Allenby, head of British                       army, British rule under Mandate, period of rapid growth.  
1914  August 1, Germany declared war on Russia,  Hebrew calendar was 9th of Av, day of mourning for Jews as Temple was destroyed on this date, Jewish national day of mourning. Stanley Goldfoot born in South Africa, lived there till age 18.  
1923:  Norman Mailer US novelist of WWII, The Naked and the Dead.  
1933  Stanley Goldfoot immigrated from South Africa to Palestine
1938:  Kristallnacht in Worms, Germany, Jewish quarter destroyed.  
1939-1945:  Holocaust; murder of 6 million Jews by Nazis and European collaborators
1941:  Jewish community in Baghdad, Iraq attacked by mobs; 180 dead
1948 to today persecution of Jewish communities in Arab countries, mass expulsions 
1948, May 14th Establishing State of Israel.  650,000 Jews. 
1948-1967 Judea/Samaria ruled by Jordan who annexed it in 1950
1972  640,600 Muslim Arabs living in Judea/Samaria from British Mandate 
1990: Madison, Wisconsin, USA had 4,500 Jews with 3 synagogues.  
2012  Ariel, Judea/Samaria  Jewish population 18,638
2013  Judea-Samaria Jewish population now 375,000
2014  Israel has 6 million Jews; 330,000 live in neighborhoods of Jerusalem; Judea/Samaria has blocks with 5 villages,towns in Northern Samaria=2,646; 11 vt.of Ariel-Elkana Block=52,000; 4 vt. of Magleh Adumem Block=46,458; 4 vt. of Eastern Etzion = 5,492; 17vt.of Samaria which Itamar is=31.212; 1city of Betar Illit=47,311; 3vt of Kiryat Sefer Block=65,004; 27vt of Jordan Valley=7,432; 9vt of Gush Etzion=22,479; 16vt of Hevron Hill=15,851; 26vt of Binyamin Region=76,794.  

"In 2006, a study by Doron Behar and Karl Skorecki of the Technion and Ramban Medical Center in Haifa, Israel demonstrated that the vast majority of Ashkenazi Jews, both men and women, have Middle Eastern ancestry.[20]According to Nicholas Wades' 2010 Autosomal study Ashkenazi Jews share a common ancestry with other Jewish groups and Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews have roughly 30% European ancestry with the rest being Middle Eastern.[21]According to Hammer, the Ashkenazi population expanded through a series of bottlenecks—events that squeeze a population down to small numbers—perhaps as it migrated from the Middle East after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 AD, to Italy, reaching the Rhine Valley in the 10th century."

"Another 2013 study, made by Doron M. Behar of the Rambam Health Care Campus in Israel and others, suggests that: "Cumulatively, our analyses point strongly to ancestry of Ashkenazi Jews primarily from European and Middle Eastern populations and not from populations in or near the Caucasus region. The combined set of approaches suggests that the observations of Ashkenazi proximity to European and Middle Eastern populations in population structure analyses reflect actual genetic proximity of Ashkenazi Jews to populations with predominantly European and Middle Eastern ancestry components, and lack of visible introgression from the region of the Khazar Khaganate—particularly among the northern Volga and North Caucasus populations—into the Ashkenazi community."

Resource:,_Germany  Excellent Excellent!!!
After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, Rabban Yochanan Ben Zakkai moved the Sanhedrin to Yavne. Some scholars believe the so-called Council of Yavne met there. The Sanhedrin left Yavne forUsha in 80 CE and returned in 116 CE.
The Source by James Mitchener
The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia
Facts About Israel, division of Information, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem
Jewish Encyclopedia (1906)
Killing Jesus by Bill O'Reilly & Martin Dugard
The Settlers by Meyer Levin; simon and Schuster Publishers, 1972
The Jews of Khazaria by Kevin Alan Brook

Thursday, August 21, 2014

Hamas Leaders Taken Out

Nadene Goldfoot                                             
Hamas broke the 11th cease fire at 4:00pm on August 19, 2014 instead of waiting for the midnight time August 19-20.  They couldn't wait to bombard Israel with their long distance missiles that hit Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, Beer Sheva and other sites.  Over 200 rockets rained down on Israel in a short time.

Instead of hitting civilians, Israel decided to try to take out the leaders of Hamas' military wing.  They tried for the top Hamas commander, Mohammed Dief but got his wife and son instead.  The overnight strike done by Shin Bet and IDF  on 3 others were successful.
                                          Hamas on the move

1. Israel killed Raed al-Attar, 40, Rafah Division commander:  involved in the planning and commanded the operation to kidnap IDF soldier Gilad Shalit, most senior commander in al-Qassam Brigades; Hamas Division commander in southern Gaza, one of architects of the terror tunnel project in the south of the Strip; also aided other Hamas divisions with tunneling.  One of the founders of Hamas' elite Nukhba unit and was in charge of arms smuggling from the Sinai Peninsula; one of the closest people to Hamas' 2nd in command Ahmed Jabari, whose assassination by the IDF and Shin Bet in November 2012 served as the opening shot for Operation Pillar Defense; In charge of launching many Hamas terror cells who committed terror attacks in Sinai against Egyptian targets.  He was considered a natural replacement for Mohammad Deif as the head of Hamas' armed wing.

2. Mohammed  Abu Shmallah, 41, Southern Division commander: also involved in the planning of the operation of kidnapping Gilad Shalit; most senior commander in al-Qassam Brigades; was in charge of the Rafah and Khan Younis area.  He had survived previous assassination attempts.

3. Mohammed Barhoum, Rafah Division senior commander.  This death is not yet confirmed by Shin Bet.

The Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigade reported that the 3 were killed 2:30am when a house was bombed in the Tel al-Sultan refugee camp west of Rafah in  southern Gaza.  7 other people were also killed and 25 others were wounded in the attack.

Resource: Video Facts

Sunday, July 06, 2014

Muhammad's Knowledge of Jews-But Palestinians Never Heard of Us

Nadene Goldfoot                                               Moses 

High-ranking PA figures claim that the Jews do not have religious or historical claims to the Holy Land.  

The fact is that Muhammad recognized that Jews were "people of the book."  "The Book" was the Bible or Torah.  They were given a special status along with Christians; also people of the book, as Dhimmis.  They could not be killed, but had to pay a higher tax than the rest of the people, sort of like paying for "protexia, protection.  They had a lot of other abominable things heaved on their shoulders as well, things they couldn't do because of their inferior status.  Dhimmitude was like being a 2nd or 3rd class citizen.  

 Palestinian Arabs such as the PA  don't want to believe or have anyone else know the history of Jews in Palestine. Yet  Muslims have our prophets as their prophets.  They regard Moses as a prophet.  Where to they think they came from?  Do they realize that prophets were Jews?  

Our Torah ( 5 Books of Moses) and Tanach (Old Testament to Christians)  is our record as Jews of being in Palestine.and before it was dubbed "Palestine." Its ancient names were Israel and Judah.    It's a book filled with our genealogy and the geography of the land.  It's so interesting to everyone that they've even made movies about episodes.  It's graphic in descriptions and details.  This is our record of our history.  Yet they deny it.

How anyone can listen to such statements with a straight face is unbelievable or take them seriously.  Even archaeology has proved our existence there.  

In Albert's interview,  he discovered that the Muslims think that if they recognize Israel as a Jewish state,  it would mean accepting the end of their own history and ties and right to Palestine.  Of course!  They have created a myth about being there for 2,000 years, convincing other Muslims far and wide of this.  Such a rumor has traveled as far as Pakistan and Afghanistan, India and who knows where else.  Now they feel they can't lose face by admitting it was all make believe.  

                               King David of Israel (1010-970 BCE) 

Actually, the Palestinian history  in Israel really started with the return of Russian Jews and others around 1880 in the 1st Aliyah movement.  They came in droves after them looking for jobs as they heard they were building.  When asked, most said they were Syrians in those days.  They found some jobs in Tel Aviv.  

There were also some Jews there that had never left the land but had converted to Islam in order to survive in the Ottoman Empire, and possibly even earlier. They're part of the Palestinian Muslims of today.   Remnants of their history are being preserved by Israeli researchers who have discovered this.  One has but to examine the homes they live in to see the star of David and other mementos of Jews  having lived there long ago.  

                                        King Solomon

There were some Arabs  who had purchased land but never used it for much.  They in turn sold it to Jews at very high prices and left for better places such as Damascus or Cairo or even Paris.  

They need to find their own history and will if they dig deep enough and do some good research on census records and such.  They would find living in the neighboring states as part of their heritage and all the history that would go with that.  However,  there is no history of a Palestinian people.  They were not a people.  They are families that have been living in what was initially called Palestine by the Romans who chose that word as an eraser:  They wanted to erase the history of the Jews as well.  It was easier to break Jews with, like horses, to make them obey, to be slaves, to take away their spirit.  That's what the Romans did to people who had been strong.  They took away the name of their country and renamed it.  

Jews were also called Palestinians before the birth of Israel on May 14, 1948.  The land had been in the Ottoman Empire's hands up to WWI for 400 years.  They were on the side of the Germans during WWI, and lost the war, and by doing so, they lost their empire.  This is something that the Arabs do not want to accept, but then they fought on the British side.  Because of that, they were rewarded by the British who helped them enter Palestine illegally and didn't record it, and by giving them 80% of the Jewish Homeland that was set aside for the Jews to have when the British mandate came to its 30 year end.  
So when they insist that there were never a Jewish people, you'd better check first to see if they even know how to read.  They are denying Muhammad who knew Jews in Medina and who read aloud on the streets for all to hear the stories from the Torah.  According to their own Koran, he even flew there on his flying horse, Buraq,  before he died which was in 632 CE.  He never used the word-Jerusalem, though, but said he went to the farthest mosque.  However, the Koran is full of some insights of his relationship with Jews.  

So, aren't they besmirching Emir Feisal's good name who had agreed to the Jews returning to Palestine and building their state?  By denying that the Jews came from the Holy Land, aren't they in effect calling Muhammad a liar?  

Resource: Albert Benamou's "From an interview in Asharq al-Awsat of Palestinian Arab foreign Minister Riyad al-Maliki:    interview of Riyad Al-Maliki
Joan Peters Book-From Time Immemorial