Thursday, October 09, 2014

Kidnappers of Three Teen Aged Israeli Boys Died During Firefight

Nadene Goldfoot                                                                               

The old year of 5774 ended with the death of the kidnappers of Gilad Shaar, Eyal Yifrach and Naftali Frankel. Two were 16 and the other was 19.  One held dual citizenship with the USA.   Their bodies were found on June 30th in a shallow grave in a field near Hebron 18 days after they had been missing.  They had been taken by accepting a ride since they were hitchhiking.  That's something that's very common to do in Israel, usually giving soldiers a ride who hitchhike from post to post. At least the soldiers carry their weapon.
 The boys accepted the ride  from a junction in the Gush Etzion bloc just south of Jerusalem where they had been attending a Yeshiva.   They were going to become rabbis.   IDF's chief of staff, Lt. Gen. Benny Gantz told the news reporters that on the day before Erev Rosh Hashanah, September 23rd, the two men they had suspected were killed in a firefight in Hebron  with Israeli troops when they tried to apprehend them.  The Israeli troops had surrounded the house where they had been hiding for more than 3 months.  All that time Israel had a tremendous search going on to find them.

How did the IDF know who did it?   They knew Hamas terrorists did the kidnapping.  They went first by family reputation of Hamas members.  Omar Abu Aysha was a 32 year old locksmith.  His brother was also a Hamas member who was killed in November 2005 while trying to thrown an explosive device at Israeli soldiers during a clash in Hebron.  They had also arrested Aysha's father several times for many terrorist activities.  Aysha was seen last at a family get-together just hours before the kidnapping, but left quickly without telling anyone where he was going.

Marwan Kawasme was a 29 year old barber.  His family was known to have ties to Hamas.  The money to buy the car used in the kidnapping and the guns they used was from Hamas through his brother, Mohamad.  Another brother, Hussam, was already in Israeli custody for helping to bury the bodies and hide the 2 men. Marwan had been detained by the PA and Israel in the past for his activities with Hamas.

The Kawasme family had 2 others besides Hussam arrested  during the operation.

Resource:  The Jewish Press, October 3, 2014, page 3.

Sunday, September 07, 2014

New Revealed Facts About Hamas and ISIS Plans Against Israel

Nadene Goldfoot                                                                  

You'd think that the Palestinian Gazans would have heard or at least felt the vibrations of the electric jackhammers drilling 20 feet below the surface in creating their tunnels leading out to Israel for attacks.  Inside them were found thousands of weapons like Russian anti-tank missiles, explosive devices, tranquilizers, handcuffs, syringes and ropes.  One can only imagine what they would be used for once a terrorist popped up in Israel. 

 They were planning attacks for Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur this year; September 24, 25, 26 and the 3rd and 4th of October.  One remembers that Yom Kippur was the date of the October 6, 1973 war.  This was when hoping to win back territory lost to Israel during the third Arab-Israeli war, in 1967, Egyptian and Syrian forces launched a coordinated attack against Israel on Yom Kippur, the holiest day in the Jewish calendar.  This is our day of fasting for 25 hours, even to be without water, and ask G-d's forgiveness of our sins.  
Some tunnels were deep enough to hold vehicles.  They were reinforced with concrete made on site in workshops next to the tunnels.  They were command centers, armories filled with weapons, rocket-launcher hiding sites and  also acted as rooms to move and hid fighters during urban combat.

The tunnels were dug in parallel pairs with many shafts to the surface for many entry points.  In Gaza's center, the labyrinth allowed fighters to move unseen between homes and alleys.

Areas of Gazan cities were laced with hundreds of booby-traps.  Brigadier-General Mickey Edelstein, commander of the IDF Gaza Division, said that in a single street in Khan Yunis in southern Gaza, the IDF found booby-traps in 19 out of 28 homes.

"On 1 August 2014, Hamas militants emerging from a tunnel attacked an Israeli patrol in Rafah killing 2 Israeli soldiers. Israel at first believed that the militants had abducted Lieutenant Hadar Goldin and were holding him, but Israel later determined that Goldin had also been killed."

Three IDF soldiers entered a building marked as a UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees. When they entered they were killed by an explosive device.

Hamas's largest known military control center was in the basement of a hospital.  IDF had to engage in very limited ground combat because the whole area was booby-trapped with explosives, ambushes and civilians that were used as targets by Hamas.

The Palestinian terrorists planned these tunnels for years and wanted to use them to hold kidnapped IDF soldiers. said Brigadier-General Moti Almoz.  Hamas wanted strategic blows more than psychological ones from just kidnapping, though.  They were out for jihad.

Their budget spent 40% for war preparations. $10 million was spent on tunnels.  800 tons of concrete was used on them.   Hamas worked with Iran in this.  They worked towards a coordinated attack of about 15,000 Hamas terrorists trained in Gaza.  From 2012, they have doubled their rocket arsenal.  They had hundreds of missiles with the range to reach Jerusalem and Tel Aviv according to Brigadier-General Itai Brun.  In March, they had bigger missiles on their way coming from Iran and sourced in Syria.  Their ship was intercepted by the Israeli Navy special forces in the Red Sea.  Now do people understand why ships have to be searched by Israel?

A mass terror attack has been averted by Operation Protective Edge.  Though about 2,000 Palestinians were killed in the Operation, they were all warned to get out of the way before the actual Israeli attacks.  Due to their leadership, they died.  It was not the plan of Israel to have this happen.  One cannot begin to comprehend the extent of Hamas behavior.

"The tunnels into Israel were constructed using the expertise of the Rafah families who have specialized in digging tunnels into Egypt for commerce and smuggling."  

Now tunnels have been discovered in Judea and Samaria.  Some were stocked with bomb-making materials.  when John Kerry suggested last week that Israel must agree to a ceasefire including the end of the operation to find and destroy tunnels, it seemed to be a preposterous idea.  He was so far behind the known facts.

Israeli author Amos Oz is a famous pacifist in Israel.  Even he condemned Hamas for creating warfare in a civilian population of Gaza.  Naftali Bennett is the leader of the Jewish Home party and Israel's Economy Minister.  He said that "without the ground operation, we would have woken up one day to an Israeli 9/11."  Thank goodness for miracles like Operation Protective Edge which allowed Israel to discover the workings of Hamas.  

The Media is not helping the situation.  They cover anything that smacks of finding fault with Israel, no matter what is going on.  Since about 2,000 Palestinians died in the operation of which about 1,000 were Hamas people, Israel is blamed.  Especially hard on Israel has been the death of so many children.  People forget it was Hamas who made sure these Palestinians suffered death for this very reason, to blame Israel for attacking.  The media forgets all this and just blames Israel for defending itself, making out that they were the aggressors just to be aggressive for no reason.

"In 2013-2014, Egypt's military has destroyed most of the 1,200 smuggling tunnels which were used to smuggle food, weapons and other goods into Gaza."  Israel has known about these tunnels and the money the Palestinians were making from them, even becoming millionaires, but were taken by surprise at the immensity of their digs in using them in warfare against Israel.  .  Israel restricted the importation of construction materials into the strip, to prevent their use for military purposes by Hamas. As a result, concrete and other construction materials were some of the main goods smuggled through the tunnels "

Israel also seems to be the only country worth reporting about.. In people's minds, Jews can do no right, therefore anti-Semitism is running rampant.   No one wants to bring to light the Muslims killing Muslims in Iraq and Syria.  In Syria alone there have been 120,000 and 170,000 people killed including more than 11,000 children.  The violence has gone into Iraq with massacres of prisoners by jihadis from IS.  CNN finally showed a video of a long single line of Iraq soldiers who were prisoners of ISIS who were shot and killed, Nazi style, after the 50 days of war in Gaza.

Sydney, Australia had chants of demonstrators waving the black flag of ISIS chanting, "Palestine is Muslim land...Jew and Christian will not stand...From Lakemba to Gaza...You can never stop Islam.  Do those people realize that if one is not of the Salafist Muslims they can be killed?  Imams in Iraq who were Sunnis have been killed by ISIS.  The Iraqi soldiers were Sunnis.  Stop Islam?  Stop one group of Islam who are against all the rest.  Evidently they want a caliphate with very few people in it to rule.  They're killing just about everyone who crosses their paths.  How do the terrorists know they aren't next?  

Unknown source through friends.

Sunday, August 31, 2014

How Israel's Foreign Minister Views Hamas

Nadene Goldfoot                                               
Avidor Lieberman, Foreign Minister for Israel, spoke on CNN's Fareed Zakaria's program this morning.  He explained that he was against the cease fire, but found he was a minority with this opinion in the Knesset.  He felt that Israel could finally wipe out Hamas and had the force to topple them at this time.

Born on June 5, 1958 in Russia, he immigrated to Israel 2 years before I did in 1978.  Being much younger and a male, he did his stint in the IDF.

Avidor explained that Hamas is a radical terrorist group. 

He is 'bothered' that a terror group endured in battle against 'strongest army in Mideast.' One of many ways was in  their use of tunnels they had built and using them by popping out in Israel and taking lives is certainly a terrorist act.  Of course he neglects to say that Israel was following the rules of conduct in this fight by warning the civilians of their bombing way before the act, even though the terrorists saw to it that it was in vain and they fought by using this uncivilized tactic.  It is uncivilized to use your own people in gaining the advantage instead of trying to keep the civilians alive.  This fact alone prove they are a terrorist group.  Yet by doing this, they successfully deflected the blame of the deaths onto the Israelis who value all life, so no wonder he realizes that Hamas survived.  

This differs from the UN opinion of them.  Avidor feels that they differ little from ISIS. 
 William Schabas, a Canadian-born professor of international law at Middlesex University in London feels that it would "inappropriate " to assert that Hamas is a terrorist organization.  He's also very much against Netanyahu, even though his father is Jewish and he sits on the advisory board of the Israel Law Review.  I personally find this opposition from young people striving to make a name for themselves so take opposing stands and then later on, as maturity and extensive reading and research sinks in, often change their views. This has happened with Israeli historian, Benny Morris.   That Schabas is part of the board goes towards Israel's open-mindedness and democratic principles.  William Schabas is a product of English thinking which has been against Jews for centuries and certainly was when they held the mandate in Palestine.

"In 2014 Schabas was appointed the head of UN Committee investigating the Israeli role in 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict. The move was criticized by Canada’s Foreign Minister John Baird  and Geneva based NGO UN Watch, due to previous records of Schabas' alleged anti-Israel bias, a charge that Schabas denies.  Schabas was born on November 19, 1950, so is 8 years older than Lieberman.  

Avidor would like to see a more moderate Palestinian group taking over in Gaza.  He says that Hamas is radical in having a charter that says to wipe out Israel.  They have been firing rockets into Israel ever since they took over the power seat from Fatah and kicked Fatah into Judea and Samaria.
Abbas, born March 26, 1935, is older than either Lieberman or Schabas,  is threatening to sue Israel in the UN over crimes against humanity.  He has lost popularity.  They are no partner in peace for Israel with an attitude like this.  They had united several times with Hamas and their charter which is the same as the Muslim Brotherhood in regards to Israel.  Abbas is using his newly founded power in the UN now against Israel of an automatic majority.  He is making a new play to reassert his role and cast himself as the leader of all Palestinians by taking his cause to the UN.  

The UN Human Rights Council already met last month and adopted a resolution against Israel with a vote of 29 to 1 with 17 abstentions and has moved to establish a commission of inquiry to investigate all violations of international humanitarian law in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.  The USA was the only country against this decision.  

Netanyahu has pointed out that the report has already been written and  have decided that Hamas is not a terrorist organization.  He said they should really look at Damascus, Baghdad and Tripoli and go see ISIS, the Syrian army and Hamas.  They'll find their war crimes in these places but not in Israel.  This probe is just like what happened in 2009 and the Goldstone Report which Israel had rejected as being it was inaccurate and biased.  Goldstone even retracted that report but the die was already cast against Israel's reputation.  

Hamas's charter, which is also adopted by the unification of Fatah and Hamas, says,
1. “Israel will exist and will continue to exist until Islam will 
obliterate it, just as it obliterated others before it” 
(The Martyr, Imam Hassan al-Banna, of blessed memory). 
These are the words of terrorists.

2. Our struggle against the Jews is very great and very serious. 

It needs all sincere efforts.
Note, this is a religious terrorist war, like ISIS is bringing on the rest of the world.  

3. The Islamic Resistance Movement is a distinguished 
Palestinian movement, whose allegiance is to Allah, and whose 
way of life is Islam. It strives to raise the banner of Allah 
over every inch of Palestine,
The Muslim Brotherhood and ISIS also share this goal.  

CNN, Fareed Zakaria programImage result for fareed zakaria
The Jewish Press, Friday, August 22, 2014, Israel Keeping Distance, front page, page 3

Friday, August 22, 2014

Jews Living in Judea, Samaria and Other Places-Timeline- from 70 CE to Today

Nadene Goldfoot                                          
                                          Judaean Desert

  1010 BCE-970 BCE  King David  of Israel 

From 163 B.C.E. there is evidence of Jews in Rome.  They were probably slaves, Traders?  
73 BCE-4 BCE Herod I, the Great, king of Judea appointed by Rome.  When he died, there were uprisings by the people so Roman General Publius Quinctilius Varus crucified 2,000 Jews to quell the uprisings.   
30 BCE  Herod the Great by Julius Ceasar, crucifixions; 25,000 Jews till 70 CE.  
 5 BCE, in Bethlehem, Judea, Roman soldiers stationed in Jerusalem from Greece, Gaul and Syria were following Roman appointed King  Herod's orders to kill all male children under age 2.                                

 1 CE 1st century Abba Sikra zealot in Jerusalem during the revolt against the Romans, alias Ben Batiah.  nephew of R Johanan ben Zakkai, helped to escape from Jerusalem.    In the year 6 CE. there were Jews at Vienne, France and Gallia Celtica which would be today's " SwitzerlandFranceLuxembourg and the west bank of the Rhine in Germany.".   "The first settlements of Jews in Europe are obscure;  in the year 39 at Lugdunum (i.e. Lyon) which is Lyon, France started in the year 43.  
29 CE Jesus was crucified during Pontius Pilate's rule; starting the narration of Christianity., About 25,000 Jews crucified by Herod till 70 CE.     
61-63 CE  Jeshua Ben Damna, high priest, appointed by Herod Agrippa II, displaced by Gamla and ensued a struggle, toward end of the siege of Jerusalem of 70 CE fled to the Romans with other members of the priestly families.
  Arch of General Titus, soon to become emperor,  Menorah Relief; Romans taking away Menorah, other things from Jerusalem, taking 97,000 slaves from Judaea in 70 CE

66-73 Judaea which was a Roman Province had the first Jewish-Roman War.  The Sadducees and Pharisees fought against the Roman Empire.  The Jewish commanders and leaders were Ananus ben Ananus, Eliezar ben Hanania, Josef ben Matityahu, and Simon Bar Giora.  In the early stage the Roman guard had 3,000 against 10,000 under Ananus and 15,000 under Bar Giora.  The Romans Syrian Legion had 30,000 in Beth Horon while there were only 500 Adiabene warriors fighting for Judaea.  Eleazar had 20,000 Idumeans fighting.  6,000 were under John and 2,400 were under Eleazar, who were the radical factions.  Then the Romans brought out 5 Legions of 60,000 to 80,000 men at the Jerusalem siege.  Judaea had about 200 Sicarii fighting.  20,000 Roman soldiers were killed while 25,000 to 30,000 Judean rebels were killed and 10,000 radical factions.  In the end, 1.1 million Jewish militant and civilians were killed and 97,000 were enslaved and most likely taken to Rome. Masada in 73, Herod's Palace, where 960 Jewish Sicarii (Jewish zealots armed with small daggers) had been living in refuge, committed suicide after 3 months of being sieged by Roman Legion led by Lucius Flavius Silva with 15,000 troops.  1 woman, 5 children escaped.  Story told by Josephus.

From 37  to 100 CE, the land of Judah had been occupied by the Romans as told by Flavius Josephus, a Jewish Historian who was captured by the Romans.  He was hired to write the history of their occupation in the Jewish land.  Individual Jews lived in France before 70 CE.   "The Romans destroyed the Jews' 2nd Temple in Jerusalem and took over the city in 70 CE.  They burned Jerusalem down and took away Jews as slaves for Rome while many others fled. Many  people of Judah had scattered to the 4 winds but  a number were able to remain in Judah.  Organized Jewish communities existed in France in the period of the Roman Empire.  Their position deteriorated with the growth of Christianity and its powers.

"As the siege of the capital in the year 70 began on the day of the Passover sacrifice (V, 13, 7, VI, 9, 3), to which naturally many thousands of pilgrims had arrived from all parts of the country, the number of the besieged was very great. Among them were many from beyond the Euphrates and other foreign lands (Dio Cassius, 66. 4). 1,100,000 men perished during the siege, 97,000 were taken captive (VI, 9, 3); of these only 40,000 were preserved (8, 2), all citizens of Jerusalem (8, 2), the rest were sold for slaves, some sent into the mines in Egypt (9, 2), others distributed among the provinces for the circuses."and where did the 40,000 settle after having been allowed to go where they liked ?

Josephus mentions one of the four sons of the high priest Matthias , the high priests Joseph and Jesus, and three sons of the high priest Ishmael, four sons of a Matthias, and many other nobles who succeeded in escaping from the besieged capital to the Romans (VI, 2, 2). 

Many of the eminent citizens ran away to Titus (V, 13, 7) and told him the number of the poor who had died. Titus allowed these to retire to Gofna; there, he said, they should stay till his hands would be free from the war, when he would restore to them their property. Among the numerous deserters was the priest Jesus, son of Thebuthi , who surrendered many costly vessels of the Temple, as well as the curtains and the robe of the high priest. The treasurer of the Temple also fell into the hands of the Romans and was exceptionally pardoned in exchange for valuable stuff, priestly garments, and costly spices.

 Already, after Cestius's defeat in the year 66, many of the nobles had left Jerusalem as if it were a sinking ship; for instance, the two brothers Costobarus and Saul, along with Phillip, son of Jakimos, who had been a general of Agrippa's troops (II, 20, 1). 

After the entry of the Romans into Jerusalem,  Titus liberated all those Jews who had been thrown into prison by zealots (VI, 9.1); they also most probably belonged to the wealthy section of the population.   It may be assumed as almost certain that the members of both groups, of the priestly and of the lay nobility of Jerusalem, at the conclusion of the war received their landed property, and assisted the poor country of Judaea in recovering from its terrible downfall. 

Where they settled is nowhere indicated by Josephus; he lived in Rome and seemed to evince no interest in the state of his native country after the destruction. It is possible that, though owning land in Judaea, some of the nobles settled outside Judaea, as Josephus, who, in exchange for his fields near Jerusalem, received from Titus others in the plain, and was rewarded by Vespasian by additional property in Judaea 

115 CE Jews were expulsed from Cyprus
132-135 CE Jewish General Bar Kochba's Revolt  when Jerusalem was liberated for a time, Roman emperor Hadrian rebuilt Jerusalem as a Roman colony, Aelia Capitolina and forbid Jews to approach it under pain of death.  Now Judah was renamed Palaestina by the Romans.There were about 200 towns and villages where Jews live in Beersheba-Arad Valley and 204 towns and villages in the Galilee.

" From this time on, in spite of unimportant movements under Antoninus, Marcus Aurelius, and Severus, the Jews, reduced in numbers, destitute, and crushed, lost their preponderance in their own homeland. Jerusalem had become, under the name "Ælia Capitolina", a Roman colony and entirely pagan city. Jews were forbidden entrance on pain of death, except for the day of Tisha B'Av, see also Anti-Judaism in the Roman Empire. Yet despite the decree, there has been an almost continual Jewish presence in Jerusalem for 3,300 years, and 43 Jewish communities in Israel remained in the 6th century: 12 on the coast, in the Negev desert, and east of the Jordan, and 31 villages in Galilee (in the northern Land of Israel) and in the Jordan Valley. Yavne on the coastal plain, associated with Yochanan ben Zakai, was an important center of Rabbinic Judaism" :"After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, Rabban Yochanan Ben Zakkai moved the Sanhedrin to Yavne. It was 12.32 miles south of Jaffa.  Some scholars believe the so-called Council of Yavne met there. The Sanhedrin left Yavne for Usha in 80 CE and returned in 116 CE.

"After the Bar Kochba Revolt of 132-135 AD the Romans engaged in mass executions and enslavement, and destroyed large numbers of Judaean towns, forbidding Jews from settling in Jerusalem or its environs (Dio Cassius, Roman History 69.12-14); there was no further Jewish government or overarching legal system thereafter in Judaea; this effectively turned the expatriate Jews of the Diaspora into a permanently exiled people with no national homeland. Restrictions (taxation, discrimination, social exclusions) further alienated and marginalized remaining Jews in the Negev and Galilee and favored the settlement of culturally pagan Syro-Phoenicians and others.[citation needed] It was at this time that Judaea became normatively known as Syria Palestina. The name reflected both the large scale killing[citation needed] of Jews during the suppression of the 2nd Jewish revolt, and a Roman policy, first pagan, then Christian, to alienate Jews from the Land of Israel and Judaea, ensuring that no Jewish temple, Jerusalem or state ever rose again."

139  Jews expelled from Rome.  
Jews were living in Germany from 100 to 1299 CE.

From 198 to 224 CE, the Parthian Empire collapsed which was largely populated by Israelites.  The empire, located on the Silk Road trade route between the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean Basin and the Han Empire of China, became a center of trade and commerce.
                                Central Asia 200-800 CE-Epicenter of Great Migration

From 200 to 800 CE was a great migration period with Central Asia as the epicenter where Jews were leaving and going into Europe.   Jews were found settling in Germany in the early 5th century which would be as early as the 400s CE and continuing to arrive there through the 10th century of 900s.  On 640, 721 and 873 Jews in the Byzantine Empire were forcibly converted to Christianity.  This was the Greek speaking Roman Empire with headquarters in Constantinople alias Istanbul.  It was later a part of the Ottoman Empire.

A decree of the emperors Theodosius II and Valentinian III, addressed to Amatius, prefect of Gaul (Gaul (LatinGallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age and Roman era, encompassing present day France,LuxembourgBelgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine (9 July 425), prohibited Jews and pagans from practicing law and from holding public offices ("militandi"), in order that Christians should not be in subjection to them, and thus be incited to change their faith. From the year 465 the Church took official cognizance of the Jews. Jews were found in Marseille in the sixth century
335-427 Ashi, editor of the Babylonian Talmud, headed the academy of Sura which he re-established at Mata Mehasya.  which is in "Sasanian Babylonia."

570-632 Mohammad, started Islam, Jewish tribes were living in Medina, Arabia, converted many Jews.  

628 Jerusalem  Byzantine ruled Jerusalem with emperor Heraclius.
630 -632 Byzantine emperor Heraclius decreed that all Jews in empire must convert to Christianity.
638 Jerusalem Caliph Omar set up in Temple esplanade place of Muslim prayer

From 652 to 1016 CE the kingdom of Khazaria in the Caucasus Mountains thrived with King Bulan converting himself and his family of about 2,000 to Judaism after listening to the speeches of a Jew, a Christian and a Muslim tell him about their belief.  He chose the Jewish religion to replace his pagan one.  Khazaria was a refuge for many Jews who left more oppressive lands towards Jews.  So it was a mixture of religions sitting on the Silk Road and involved in much trading.
691 Dome of the Rock built by Muslim Umayyad caliph Abd-elMalik, now Jews allowed to return to Jerusalem.  
700 Jews were living in Lithuania. "Lithuanian Jews or Litvaks are Jews with roots in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: (present-day LithuaniaBelarus,UkraineLatvia and the northeastern Suwałki region of Poland). 
722-723 Escaped from Byzantine Empire from Emperor Leo III, who forced Jews to adopt Christianity

742 to 814 CE Jews lived under Charlemagne who was crowned king of the Franks and of Italy in 768.    The community prospered under Charlemagne.  Charlemagne united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire. His rule spurred the Carolingian Renaissance, a period of cultural and intellectual activity within the Catholic Church.  Aaron (Abu Aharon) Ben Samuel, Mystic and wonder-worker, left Baghdad about 870 and wandered through Italy, teaching Kabbalistic lore.  Pupil was Moses ben Kalonymos of Lucca, Italy who carried his teachings to Germany, regarded as father of Kabbalistic study in Europe.  
800s Lyons, France, Jewish settlement to Roman times, Agobard and Amulo, bishops of Lyons claimed that the Jews were excessively privileged by the king and that the market-day had been changed from Saturday to suit their convenience.    Both the French and German monarchies considered their kingdoms to be descendants of Charlemagne's empire.  From the 700s under the protection of Charlemagne and his house, Jewish merchants began to settle in France for purposes of trade, importing foreign luxuries and establishing new communities up the Rhone Valley and into Champagne.  By the 9th century,  southern France was the main center of the activity of the international traders, the Radanites.  
860  Forced conversion of Byzantine Jews by Emperor Basil I -end of century Jews couldn't hold public office, intermarry with Christians or own Christian slaves, forced to read bible in Greek and not in Hebrew, not to convert Christians on pain of death and property would be taken, couldn't testify for Christians during legal proceedings or build new synagogues-forcing the inferior status of byzantine Jews in comparison to Orthodox Christians. 
932  Byzantine emperor Romanus I Lecapenus persecuted Jews, tried to convert them to Christianity, so murdered hundreds of Jews and destroyed many synagogues.  Jews migrated to Khazaria from Muslim and Byzantine lands, Joseph , king of Khazars welcomed them to settle in Khazaria.  

1000s  Jew Street in Aachen, Germany. 
 Fatimids of 11th century built a 2nd mosque, El-Aksa, on Temple site.  
1034: First synagogue erected in Worms, Germany (oldest city in Germany)  established by the Celts, "Worms also played prominently into the Protestant Reformation in the early sixteenth century, the site of Martin Luther's stand before the 1521 Diet of Worms, and also the birthplace of the first Bibles of the Reformation, German and English."
1040:  Abiathar Ben Elijah Ha-Cohen, died in 1109, last Gaon in Eretz Yisrael.  Exiled after violent quarrel with Egyptian exilarch David ben Daniel.  work found in Cairo genizah, left at the time of the 1st Crusade, transferring the seat of the Gaonate to Syria.  

This was the seat of Rashi (1040-1105) and the Tosaphists.  Jews were being excluded from trade and handicrafts which drove them more and more into money-lending which in Northern France became their economic stand-by.  Rashi studied in the Rhineland which was Germany.  He died in Troyes, Champagne, France.  He earned his livelihood with his vineyard.  He was author of well known concise commentary on the bible.  He had 3 daughters; Jochaved, Miriam,  and Rachel.  
1060 Itzhak Tzarfarti died in Worms, Germany
1096 to 1254 CE  started the first of 7 Crusades.  Jews suffered during the Crusades in Eretz Yisrael and in Europe as well. 800 Jews murdered by crusaders and local mob.  
1099 Godfrey of Bouillon stormed Jerusalem as Crusader and it became the capital of the Latin Kingdom.   Jewish community in Jerusalem massacred by the Crusaders.  Jews and Muslims fought together against Crusaders.
1110-1165  Maimon Ben Joseph, scholar, father of Maimonides, of Cordova, Spain, author of an Arabic commentary on the Bible, left Spain in 1148 because of persecution, went to Fez, Egypt and wrote a book upholding the faith of those Jews who were forced to convert to Islam.  Settled in Egypt.  
1145: Abraham Ibn Ezra lived in Mantua, Italy, formerly capital of a duchy.  May have only had a few families then.  
1146- Jews of Spain forcibly converted to Christianity.  Jews were massacred in European towns by marauding Crusaders.     In this 11th-12th century era, the Jewish communities of Northern France were the most densely settled in Europe--if not in the world.  The Talmud was the main branch of study.  
1160 -1238  Eleazar ben Judah of Worms, (Eleazar Ben Judah Ben Kalonymos), alias Rabbi of Worms and Eleazar Rokea, born in Mainz, Franconia, Germany, died in Worms, Germany, Rabbi, mystic, Talmudist, codifier, wrote "book of the Pious", part of eminent Kalonymos family which gave medieval Germany many spiritual leaders and mystics, Kabbalist. 
1161 Jews in Granada, Spain, narrative of being Jews from tribes of Judah and Benjamin in Judaea.
1175 Rashi Synagogue in Worms, Germany built
1185 Aaron of Lincoln died, was an English financier, extended business to 25 English counties, many of nobility, property was confiscated by the Crown, took his money that was owed to him.  
1187 Ayyubid sultan Saladin retook Jerusalem for Islam, remaining in Muslim hands except for a  few years in 13th century.  
1200-1300  Aaron Ben Jacob Ha-Cohen, French talmudist, expulsed from France in 1306 with other Jews, went to Majorca, finished Jewish laws list there.  
Aaron Ben Joseph Ha-Levi, Spanish talmudic authority, studied under Nahmanides in Barcelona, Spain, famous teacher.  
1214-1414  a DNA bottleneck shows that Ashkenazis all come from only 350 Jews during this period.  Report earlier was that Jews came from only 4 women of different periods.  
1290: Expulsion of Jews from England.
1306 Expulsion of the Jews from France.
1300s to 1400s Mameluke Period, new building were erected, water supply improved.  
1349-60 Jews expelled from Hungary
1346 to 1353 Jew were accused of well poisoning during the Black Death period  which led to mass slaughter of German Jews and they fled in large numbers then to Poland.  
1355: 12,000 Jews massacred by the mob in Toledo, Spain.  
1391: Jews of Spain again forcibly converted to Christianity. 
1420 Jewish community destroyed in Toulouse, France
1421: Jews expelled from Austria
1492: Spanish Inquisition:  Expulsion of 180,000 Jews from Spain, 50,000 converted to                          Christianity who remain in Spain.  Pious immigrants from many lands returned to an almost extinct Jewish population in Judea.  , numbers were artificially restricted by the government.  
1495: Jews expelled from Lithuania
1497: Jews expelled from Sicily and Sardinia and Portugal
1502: All Jews  of Rhodes forcibly converted, expelled or taken into slavery
1510 -1573  Solomon Ben Jehiel Luria, alias Maharshal, rabbi and codifier in Lithuania and Poland, finally in Lublin; 
1512 or 1525-1609 Rabbi Jehuda Loew Ben Bezalel  "Maharil of Prague, Czechoslovakia/ Worms, Germany; genealogies trace him to Rashi; created the Golem. 
1534-1572 Isaac Ben Solomon Luria, alias "Ashkenazi,"   Judean kabbalist, born in Jerusalem, educated in Egypt, lived in Safed from 1570 , lived ascetic life, saintly character, identified ancient graves in Galilee, teacher
1541:  Jews expelled from the Kingdom of Naples.
1555  Aboab, family of Spanish origin, scholar and writer, born of Marrano parents, emigrated                 to Italy, reverted back to Judaism.
1604-1657 Manasseh ben Israel, Dutch rabbi, born of Marrano parentage as Manoel Dias Soeiro, went to Amsterdam as child, was child prodigy, 18 years old became rabbi.  
1625  Jewish population in Judea brutally despoiled by the local pasha Muhammad ibn Farukh.
1630 -1703  Samuel Oppenheimer/Oppenheim, philanthropist and Court Jew, the first to settle in Vienna, Austria after the 1670 expulsion, was King Leopold the First's  agent and financier; helping to finance his wars with Turks and War of the Spanish succession; in 1697 was accused of conspiring to murder his rival and great friend, Samson Wertheimer and imprisoned until vindicated.  Liberally supported poor, Jewish scholars, and Judah Hasid's movement to settle in Palestine.   Jewish Ghetto in 1630.  
1635-1683   Abraham Abele of Gombin, Polish talmudist and rabbi of Kalish.                              
1645 Rabbi  David Ashkenazy died, who was the Rabbi in Lemberg, Poland.  Ancestor of the Gaon of Vilna.    1648-56:  100,000 Jews murdered in the Chmielnicki massacres in Poland

                    Rabbi Samson Wertheimer of which my family shares a few genes, or his brother, Moses.

1658- 1724   Rabbi Samson Wertheimer lived and died  in Vienna, Austria, but was born in Worms, Germany, King Leopold 's finance-Minister, entrusted with the financial secrets of the country, supplied much of the war material for the army with Spain.  Fought against those who told malicious lies about the Jewish people.   
c1660-c1746 Rabbi Yehiel Heilprin in Minsk, Russia.  Talmud scholar, Kabbalah, chief Rabbi of Minsk.  
1664-1736  David Oppenheim/Oppenheimer, Rabbi and bibliophiole, nephew of Samuel Oppenheimer, born in Worms, Germany, Rabbi in Nikolsburg and from 1702 in Prague, had library of books, kept them in Hanover because of censorship in Prague.  
1685: Hirsch Rothschild zur hinteren Pfanne died in Germany.  
1698  Joseph Ben Issachar Susskind Oppenheimer; endeavored to consolidate the duchy's finances and free its ruler from dependence on grants from the estates which aroused much opposition and after the duke died in 1737, he was accused of embezzling state finances hanged in Stuttgart for having sexual relations with Christian women, refused baptism; in novel Jew Suss by Lion Feuchtwanger.  
1700-1760 Baal Shem Tov, Israel Ben Eliezer, founder of Hasidism
1707 -1747, Italian Jewish Kabbalist and poet born and educated in  Padua, Italy thought of himself as forerunner of Messiah,  dabbled in the esoteric, mystical austerities. 
                                                             Gaon of Vilna, Lithuania 

1720 -1797   Rabbi Eliyahu ben Solomon, Gaon of Vilna
1727, 1747:  Jews expelled from Russia, 
1730   Iones "Jonah" Goldfus, Telsiai, Kaunas, Lithuania
1754-1800:  Solomon Maimon, philosopher, son of Lithuanian village inn-keeper, child prodigy, married at 14, father at 15, taught himself German, age 25 left for Germany, became a 
wandering begger.  went to Berlin, wrote, philosopher
1758  Rabbi Shlomo-Zalman  of Vilna died.  His wife was Treina and they were the parents of the Gaon of Vilna, Lithuania.  
1764  By 1764 there were about 750,000 Jews in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The worldwide Jewish population (comprising the Middle East and the rest of Europe) was estimated at 1.2 million.
1780:  Jewish community organized in Manchester, England.  
1800s  Samauel David Luzzatto, Italian scholar, professor at Padua Rabbinical College, Hebrew literature scholar.  Europeans returned brought about population revival going from 3,000 Jews in 1838 to  50,000 Jews in 1910.  Abraham Ben Alexander Katz of Kalisk, died 1810, Hasidic rabbi, studied under Elijah of Vilna , later joined Hasidic movement.  
1838:  Entire Jewish community in Meshed, Persia, forcibly converted to Islam
1840  Damascus, Syria Blood Libel of Jews 
1850: Madison, Wisconsin, USA had 17 Jewish families from Central europe living there.  They founded Congregation Shaare Shomayim in 1959.  
1855  New quarters built outside the Old City wall by Sir Moses Montefiore.
1856 Reform synagogue in Manchester, England built.  
1882-1890:  750,000 Jews living in Russia forced to re-settle in the Pale of Settlement.                                        Jerusalem was connected with Jaffa by a railway line; Aaron Aaronson, Romanian taken to Palestine , founder of Zikhron Yaakov, studied agronomy in France, worked in Metullah , was leader, advisor to Turkish commander Jemal Pasha, oranized underground intelligence service NILI.   
1891:  Jews expelled from Moscow and St. Petersburg, Russia
1898  Herzl greeted German emperor William II who visited Jerusalem.

1914-1917  World War I  population fell to 50,000, occupied by General Allenby, head of British                       army, British rule under Mandate, period of rapid growth.  
1914  August 1, Germany declared war on Russia,  Hebrew calendar was 9th of Av, day of mourning for Jews as Temple was destroyed on this date, Jewish national day of mourning. Stanley Goldfoot born in South Africa, lived there till age 18.  
1923:  Norman Mailer US novelist of WWII, The Naked and the Dead.  
1933  Stanley Goldfoot immigrated from South Africa to Palestine
1938:  Kristallnacht in Worms, Germany, Jewish quarter destroyed.  
1939-1945:  Holocaust; murder of 6 million Jews by Nazis and European collaborators
1941:  Jewish community in Baghdad, Iraq attacked by mobs; 180 dead
1948 to today persecution of Jewish communities in Arab countries, mass expulsions 
1948, May 14th Establishing State of Israel.  650,000 Jews. 
1948-1967 Judea/Samaria ruled by Jordan who annexed it in 1950
1972  640,600 Muslim Arabs living in Judea/Samaria from British Mandate 
1990: Madison, Wisconsin, USA had 4,500 Jews with 3 synagogues.  
2012  Ariel, Judea/Samaria  Jewish population 18,638
2013  Judea-Samaria Jewish population now 375,000
2014  Israel has 6 million Jews; 330,000 live in neighborhoods of Jerusalem; Judea/Samaria has blocks with 5 villages,towns in Northern Samaria=2,646; 11 vt.of Ariel-Elkana Block=52,000; 4 vt. of Magleh Adumem Block=46,458; 4 vt. of Eastern Etzion = 5,492; 17vt.of Samaria which Itamar is=31.212; 1city of Betar Illit=47,311; 3vt of Kiryat Sefer Block=65,004; 27vt of Jordan Valley=7,432; 9vt of Gush Etzion=22,479; 16vt of Hevron Hill=15,851; 26vt of Binyamin Region=76,794.  

"In 2006, a study by Doron Behar and Karl Skorecki of the Technion and Ramban Medical Center in Haifa, Israel demonstrated that the vast majority of Ashkenazi Jews, both men and women, have Middle Eastern ancestry.[20]According to Nicholas Wades' 2010 Autosomal study Ashkenazi Jews share a common ancestry with other Jewish groups and Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews have roughly 30% European ancestry with the rest being Middle Eastern.[21]According to Hammer, the Ashkenazi population expanded through a series of bottlenecks—events that squeeze a population down to small numbers—perhaps as it migrated from the Middle East after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 AD, to Italy, reaching the Rhine Valley in the 10th century."

"Another 2013 study, made by Doron M. Behar of the Rambam Health Care Campus in Israel and others, suggests that: "Cumulatively, our analyses point strongly to ancestry of Ashkenazi Jews primarily from European and Middle Eastern populations and not from populations in or near the Caucasus region. The combined set of approaches suggests that the observations of Ashkenazi proximity to European and Middle Eastern populations in population structure analyses reflect actual genetic proximity of Ashkenazi Jews to populations with predominantly European and Middle Eastern ancestry components, and lack of visible introgression from the region of the Khazar Khaganate—particularly among the northern Volga and North Caucasus populations—into the Ashkenazi community."

Resource:,_Germany  Excellent Excellent!!!
After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, Rabban Yochanan Ben Zakkai moved the Sanhedrin to Yavne. Some scholars believe the so-called Council of Yavne met there. The Sanhedrin left Yavne forUsha in 80 CE and returned in 116 CE.
The Source by James Mitchener
The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia
Facts About Israel, division of Information, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem
Jewish Encyclopedia (1906)
Killing Jesus by Bill O'Reilly & Martin Dugard
The Settlers by Meyer Levin; simon and Schuster Publishers, 1972
The Jews of Khazaria by Kevin Alan Brook